Ancient Civilizations Reference Library Vol 2 Biographies by Judson Knight; Lawrence W Baker; Stacy A McConnell

By Judson Knight; Lawrence W Baker; Stacy A McConnell

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8 Macedon (MAS-uh-dahn) was a rough, warlike country to the north of Greece. Although the Macedonians (mas-uh- DOHN-ee-unz) considered themselves part of the Greek tradition, the Greeks tended to look down on them as rude and unschooled. , the focus of power was shifting northward. ; r. ), Alexander’s father, proved himself the most extraordinary Macedonian leader up to his time. Had it not been for his even more remarkable son, he would be remembered as the greatest of all Macedonian leaders. 7 or 3 meters) longer than the spears of Greek hoplites (HAHP-lytz), or foot soldiers.

When the Egyptologist Howard Carter found it in 1922, the tomb contained a wealth in archaeological treasures. Tutankhamen became much more famous in death than in life. Likewise, Amarna became an important archaeological site. When Tutankhamen’s court hastily moved away, they left behind a vast array of records detailing, for instance, Egypt’s relations with other countries of the time. Called the “Amarna Akhenaton 5 Letters,” these records, written on some 380 clay tablets, were found accidentally in 1887.

Plato, like Confucius (see entry), had tried and failed to cultivate a philosopher-king in Dionysius the Younger, yet ironically it was Aristotle who actually had an opportunity to influence a future world-conqueror. Certainly, Alexander was a typical conqueror in many respects, spilling blood and destroying cities, but in many regards he was far more enlightened than all but a handful of ancient rulers. Much of what he left behind was positive. His enlightened reign can in some measure be attributed to Aristotle.

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