Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and by Barrie Gunter

By Barrie Gunter

Problem is transforming into concerning the effectiveness of tv advertisements rules within the gentle of technological advancements within the media. the present speedy development of television structures in terrestrial, sattelite, and cable codecs will quickly movement into electronic transmission. those all supply possibilities for better commercialization via advertisements on media that experience now not formerly been exploited. In democratic societies, there's a rigidity among freedom of speech rights and the damage that may be performed to young children via advertisement messages. This ebook explores all of those concerns and appears to the long run in contemplating how potent codes of perform and law will develop.

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Perceptual cues might include the short length of an advertisement, its colors, the speed of action, adult voice-overs, and the presence of a jingle. In other words, factors that catch and maintain the attention of the audience may help children to first identify advertisements. ADVERTISING FACTORS AFFECTING DIFFERENTIATION Certain factors can reduce the ability of children to differentiate between programs and commercials. The concept of host selling, that is, using popular television characters in commercials that also feature in the adjacent program can blur the boundaries between an advertisement and the surrounding program (Kunkel, 1988a).

These programs, often cartoons, have been criticized as no more than program-length commercials, designed as vehicles to market brands to young children (Kunkel, 2001). The use of alternative marketing communications such as sponsorship may also lead to confusion, although this is an underresearched area. However, such forms of marketing are an increasingly popular way to break through the clutter in traditional advertising media (see chap. 2). Other factors may make it easier for children to differentiate between programs and advertisements.

They carried out a survey of more than 800 children aged between 11 and 15 years, dividing them into smokers and nonsmokers and testing their exposure to sponsored sport and recall of branded cigarettes. Piepe et al. found a causal link between viewing sponsored sport and recall of the Benson and Hedges brand. Ledwith (1984) carried out a study of nearly 900 children aged from 11 to 16 years in the United Kingdom. Ledwith found that the children were most aware of those ciga- 28 CHAPTER 2 rette brands that frequently sponsored sporting events on television, and as a result, sponsorship by tobacco manufacturers acted as cigarette advertising, despite the fact such advertising is banned in the United Kingdom.

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