By Hugo I. De Lasa
The cross-fertilization of physico-chemical and mathematical principles has a protracted old culture. This quantity of Advances in Chemical Engineering is sort of thoroughly devoted to a convention on 'Mathematics in Chemical Kinetics and Engineering' (MaCKiE-2007), which was once held in Houston in February 2007, bringing jointly approximately forty mathematicians, chemists, and chemical engineers from 10 nations to debate the appliance and improvement of mathematical instruments of their respective fields.
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Extra resources for Advances in Chemical Engineering: Photocatalytic Technologies
SÃe Sh þ hþ ! SÃh ð37Þ ð38Þ If electron acceptors (Ox2, like oxygen) or electron donors (Red1, as organic substrates) are present at the surface, they can be photoadsorbed on the active centers: Photoadsorption on SÃe SÃe þ Ox2 ! Ox2ðphotoadsÞ ð39Þ Photoadsorption on SÃh SÃh þ Red1 ! Red1ðphotoadsÞ ð40Þ The photoadsorption steps are followed by oxidation of the organic substrate: Oxidation Red1ðphotoadsÞ þ hþ ! Ox•1 ð41Þ and by reduction of the oxidant species: Reduction Ox2ðphotoadsÞ þ e À ! Red•2 ð42Þ Competitive with reactions (37–40) are the back reactions: Decay of SÃe active center SÃe !
As a result, the reduction is then assumed to be driven by intermediates generated by attack of hþ vb or 44 Marta I. Litter HO• to alcohols or carboxylic acids (HR), with the generation of highly energetic species (R•) (Figure 3): • • þ HR þ hþ vb =HO ! R þ H =H2 O ð16Þ For the cases of methanol, ethanol, or 2-propanol, R• are 1-hydroxyalkyl radicals, while for formic or oxalic acids the strong reducing CO•2 À is formed, with other carboxylic acid generating similar reducing species. Concurrently, reaction (14) is hindered if HR is added at relatively high concentrations because reaction (16) will predominate.
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