Access to Education: New Possibilities by Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)

It is hard for us at the present time to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, used to be at one time thought of to be if now not an evil not less than a futile goal, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adversarial be­ reason it will disturb an equilibrium as very important as that of a development. within the center a long time simply the Church was once capable of search for new individuals on the backside of the social ladder, considering the fact that ecclesiastical workplace used to be no longer inherited through beginning. yet efforts during this course have been inevitably very constrained, whether in basic terms due to the fabric stumbling blocks to such an target. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other form of equality couldn't also be imagined by way of the aristocracy whose very lifestyles might were threatened. Its preliminary indifference used to be via lively competition. while it grew to become attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the primary itself met with a basic objection. The ruling category, idle by way of its very nature, feared that the employees and particularly these at the land could abandon their effective labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.

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The Socialist Countries (I945-I97o) considerations, general aptitude, etc. The effect of this is that the examiner has to weight his first assessment of the candidate, bringing society as a whole into account as a basis for a final decision, considering firstly the social origins of the applicant, and secondly his future integration into the area of society in which he will work when qualified. This double expansion of examination criteria, which is also a justification of the examination method, has been well explained by a Warsaw university professor who gives it a normative value: "the entry examination must enable the examiner to assess: 1) the general theoretical knowledge of the candidate 2) his intellectual capacity within his chosen field 3) his social situation in so far as this has facilitated or hindered him in acquiring education and general culture 4) his attitude to life and work in and for the socialist society.

Paris 1969. 17 G. E. Glezerman, Ob klassouoj diferenciacii i social'noj odinorodnosti. (class differences and social levelling) in Voprosy filosofii no. 2,1963, p. 39. 18 Cf. M. N. Rutkevic, Education as a factor of social mobility in the USSR. At the 6th Sociological Congress at Evian 1966. The Socialist Countries (1945-1970) Education and social groups in the USSR To achieve equality for everyone is it enough to simply proclaim equality? Certainly not, to judge from the many measures taken in the USSR since the revolution to advance the working class, both industrial and agricultural.

48 To quote only one example, in 1967 308 candidates from Ibid. Once again there was little noticeable change, if we compare these results with the proportions of these groups in the total population on the one hand and the situation before 1956 on the other hand. It seems that the real purpose of this final selection method has been much more to select candidates who are politically reliable than to increase the number of representatives from the working and peasant classes. 1970. Cf. Le Monde 22-23 February 1970.

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