A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into by Mizuho Yabushita

By Mizuho Yabushita

The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass comparable to cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to useful compounds has attracted world wide curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling examine zone has been summarized good within the common advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many optimum yields ever mentioned. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that susceptible acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly diverse from mentioned catalytic platforms that require robust acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been built. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis permits the construction of N-acetylated monomers in reliable yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms verified during this thesis are distinctive within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic stories in accordance with characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts through the reactions. the implications can be important for readers to layout and advance new catalysts and response systems.

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4 Objectives of This Thesis Work As described above, the hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose is one of the main target reactions in biorefinery. H2SO4 and cellulase enzymes have been used for the depolymerization even in commercial scales, but their complete recovery requires unprofitable processes. Hence, to date, heterogeneous catalysts have attracted great interest due to their ease of separation and reuse. In this area, most researchers focus on strong acid catalysts, namely sulfonated materials, and indeed they efficiently hydrolyze pure cellulose to glucose in 75–92 % yields as described in Sect.

A monomeric unit possessing the acetamido group is called N-acetylglucosamine (denoted as GlcNAc in this thesis. Another abbreviation NAG is widely used as well). Another nitrogen-containing polymer called chitosan is also known as one of the marine biomass resources, and a building block of chitosan is glucosamine (GlcN), which has an amino group at C2 position. Chitin has robust crystalline structures formed by inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bond network similar to cellulose. , α-, β-, and γ-chitin, distinguished by packing manner of chitin strands, and the type depends on the origin of chitin.

The residual Cl on the catalysts derived from catalyst precursors such as H2PtCl6 probably leads to the formation of HCl or AlCl3. HCl and Al3+ species enhanced the rates of cellulose hydrolysis and side reactions [170, 171]. This problem is avoidable by using Cl-free precursors such as Pt(NH3)2(NO2)2 and carbon supports. Liu et al. 2 at 448 K [174]. 6) is too high to catalyze hydrolysis of cellulose. The direct attack of water molecule to glycosidic bonds may be more significant [175]. Further works are necessary to scrutinize real active species.

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